Human Medicine and Health Sciences

Natural science axiom

This subject area is extremely broad, with many courses providing the professional pathway to careers in medicine, dentistry, nursing, and other allied fields. A degree course in medicine takes a little over six years and finishes with the state examination. Bachelor’s and Master’s courses in the health sciences are an interesting alternative.

Many Stages along the way to the Medical Profession

A degree course in medicine takes at least six years and three months. In contrast to similar degree courses, such as health sciences and care management, it is not divided into Bachelor’s and Master’s courses; instead, it ends with the state examination. The training differs from medicine degree courses in other countries in a number of aspects.

Universities and Colleges are Offering Courses in the Following Subject areas:

 Pre-clinical medicine
 Pre-clinical dentistry
 Clinical medicine
 Clinical dentistry
 Anatomy, physiology, and pathology
 Pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacy
 Complimentary medicines, therapies, and wellbeing
 Oral Sciences
 Medical technology

The major fields of study in Health & Applied Sciences are:

 Medical Technology

Medical Technology involves the study of micro-organisms through the examination of body fluids, tissues, cells, chemical content of fluids, and blood samples.


This study is a multidisciplinary field that includes psychology, computer science, statistical physics and medicine in the scientific study of the nervous system and its components and functional activities at the molecular, cellular, system, behavioral, and cognitive levels.

 Food Science And Nutrition

Nutritional Science is the multidisciplinary study of food and the application of knowledge to the development of food products and processes, the preservation and storage of foods, the assurance of food safety and quality and its effect on metabolism, health, performance and disease resistance of humans and animals, including the study of human behaviours related to foods.


This study involves the planning of food and nutrition, supervising the preparation and serving of meals and also helps prevent and treat illnesses by promoting healthy eating habits, scientifically evaluating clients’ diets and suggesting diet medications.


This study focuses on the practical applications of nursing that expands into the theoretical realms of patient care.


This study is the development of new devices, materials, and structures that are well below the 1-micron size scale. The study explores the possibilities of detecting molecules of chemical warfare agents, creating a new generation of computer components or making medical strides on the molecular level.


This study focuses on the theoretical and observational study of the structure, properties, and behavior of stars, star systems and clusters, stellar life cycles, and related phenomena. Astrophysicists interpret observational data with laws of physics and mathematics and include areas in cosmology, plasma kinetics, stellar physics, convolution and non-equilibrium radiation transfer theory, non-Euclidean geometries, mathematical modeling, galactic structure theory, and relativistic astronomy.


This interdisciplinary study draws from chemistry, biology, agriculture, physics, psychology, and law to apply techniques and principles of the natural and physical sciences to the analysis of evidence collected during criminal investigations. Students learn to perform tests on substances like glass, fiber, tissue, hair and body fluids.

 Health Sciences

It is not only doctors who are required in the healthcare sector. Public health focuses on the health of an entire population. It investigates the interaction between people and their environment, develops strategies for dealing with health problems and addresses issues of health economics.

These programmes prepare you for various roles within the healthcare sector. Well-trained healthcare professionals are in demand for workplace health promotion, municipal health promotion, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry, international organizations or consumer protection. The field of health sciences includes Bachelor’s and Master’s courses in public health management, health economics, and health education. Some of the degree programmes require completed vocational training and are often course alongside career offers. They are aimed at people already working in a caring, nursing or social profession. The degree course teaches aspects of medicine, health sciences and social sciences, as well as specialist aspects of psychology and economics.

HSC – minimum GPA 3.5 in TWO of the following subjects – Biology, Physics/Mathematics, Chemistry A Level – Grade D in TWO of the following subjects – Biology, Physics/Mathematics, Chemistry

Levels – To get on to a medical and dentistry degree, you will require three A levels and A grades. Typically chemistry and biology A level are required, with some schools preferring a third related science subject. It is important to check individual requirements with each university.

Pharmacology related degrees generally require A-level chemistry and normally one other subject from biology, physics or maths. In other allied medical professionals (i.e. physiotherapy, radiology, speech therapy, and nursing) you will generally need at least one science A-level. Depending on the field biology may be preferred, again check individual course requirements.

In addition to the different, A-level requirements above you will also need at least five GCSEs (A-C) including science, English, and maths. A few universities offer a foundation year (known as a ‘gateway year’) for medicine and dentistry. These are for applicants who don’t achieve the grades required or hold the appropriate A-level subjects. These courses are generally aimed at those who come from disadvantaged backgrounds and or from families that do not have a tradition of entering higher education.


This is a highly competitive field, with courses such as medicine and dentistry, in particular, receiving some of the highest numbers of applications per place. Applicants meeting the academic and personal statement criteria will be interviewed for most subject areas. Other selection tests may also be used, for example, the majority of medical and dentistry schools will expect you to take either the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) or the BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT).

Key areas of Employment

 Medical Technology

Medical Laboratories or Offices, Clinics, Blood Banks, Research & Testing Laboratories, Government & Public Health AgenciesOccupations include Analytical Chemist, Bacteriologist, Blood Banking Technologist, Medical Technologist, Public Health Specialist, Microbiologist, Parasitologist, Toxicologist


Medical Laboratories, Hospitals, Universities, Research & Testing Laboratories, Government & Public Health Agencies

 Food Science and Nutrition

Fitness Centers, Food or Pharmaceutical Companies, Public Health Agencies or Educational Institutions


Schools, Clinics, Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Cafeterias, Food Manufacturing, Marketing, Advertising, Wellness Programs, Sports Teams, Supermarkets or Health Care Facilities


Hospitals, Clinics, Physician Offices, Schools, Private Duty & Home health nurses also work in the legal arena as Consultants & Lawyers with a Nursing Degree, for Insurance Companies, as Clinical Researchers, Sales Representatives for Drug Companies & Medical Equipment Firms or Teachers in Nursing Schools.


Electronics/Semiconductor Industry, Materials Science including Textiles, Polymers & Packaging, Auto & Aerospace Industries, Sports Equipment, Pharmaceuticals including Drug Delivery, Cosmetics, Biotechnology, Medical Fields, Optoelectronics, Environmental Monitoring & Control, Food Science including Quality Control & Packaging, Forensics, University & Federal Lab Research


University Researcher, Research Equipment Designer, Planetarium Technician, Computational Astrophysicist, Solar Astronomer, Cosmologist, Planetary Scientist, Telescope Engineer, Support Astronomer or Professor


Crime Laboratories, Specialized Private Laboratories, Law Enforcement Agencies, Forensic Laboratories, Research Scientists, Medical Laboratories, Medical Examiner Offices, Hospitals, Private Firms or Universities

Other Employment areas where a science-related Degree may be particularly relevant include:

 environment and agriculture
 scientific sales and marketing
 technical media and journalism
 Related careers

Examples of Related Careers Include the following Job Titles:

 healthcare scientist in clinical biochemistry, hematology, or immunology
 hospital doctor
 learning disability nurse
 occupational therapist
 research scientist
 speech and language therapist

Medical graduates have an exciting and varied career.

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